Author: Ibn Taymiyyah | Language: English | Size: 1MB | Pages: 36 | Format: PDF
Ibn Taymiyyah verdicts in regards to Jihad are often not available especially on whom Jihaad is to be carried out. The shaykhs verdicts are filled with a sea of knowledge that oulines fighting not only the enemy aggressor, but also apostates and even those who oppose clear cut rulings of Islam, despite their claims to be Muslims.
Taqi ud-Deen Abu-l-’Abbas Ahmad ibn ‘Abd al-Haleem ibn ‘Abd as-Salam ibn Taymiyyah al-Harrani al-Hanbali, was born on Monday the 10th of Rabi’ al-Awwal 66l H./22nd of January 1263 C.E. at Harran. His father fled with his family from Harran to Damascus in the year 667 H. /1268 C.E. out of fear of the Tartars who invaded the land of Islaam and were very close to Harran. In Damascus, the centre of Islaamic studies at that time, Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah followed in the footsteps of his father who was a scholar of Islaamic studies by studying with the great scholars of his time, among them four women including Zainab bint al-Makki who taught him hadeeth.
He completed his studies when he was a teenager and at the age of nineteen he became a teacher of Islamic doctrines. He was well versed in Quraanic studies, hadeeth, fiqh, theology, Arabic grammar and scholastic theology. He started giving fataawa on religious legal matters without following any of the traditional legal schools. He defended the sound prophetic traditions by arguments, which, although taken from the Quraan and the Sunnah, had hitherto been unfamiliar to people of his time.
This was a time when the entire world of Islaam was trembling with fright as an imminent target of Tartar oppression. Iraq, Iran, and Khurasaan continued to be
despotically ruled by the Tartars. The Mamluke Turks ruled Egypt, Sudan, Syria, and Hijaz. Simultaneously, a large Christian evangelical movement was mounting to censure Islaam. The crusaders were incessantly attacking Palestine and the European Christians residing in Syria and Cyprus had become emboldened to criticize the prophethood of Rasoolullah r, compose works on the alleged truthfulness of Christianity, and to invite theological debate.
Ibn Taymiyyah responded at every possible level. He fought heretical innovations in religion which were wide spread during his time all over the Muslim world, especially certain acts and beliefs of some Sufi orders, like saint worship and visiting saints’ tombs seeking help from them, his refutations on shirk and bid`ah caused him to be persecuted by the authorities whose leaders were under the influence of certain scholars.
Ibn Taymiyyah’s fight was not limited to the people who followed the heretical innovations; in addition, he fought against the Tartars who attacked the Muslim world and almost reached Damascus. The people of Syria sent him to Egypt to urge the Mamluke Sultan, the Sultan of Egypt and Syria to lead his troops to Syria to save it from the invading Tartars. When he realized that the Sultan was hesitant to do what he asked of him, he threatened the Sultan by saying: “If you turn your back on Syria we will appoint a Sultan over it who can defend it and enjoy it at the time of peace”.
He was present at the battle of Shaqhab near Damascus against the Tartars which took place during the fasting month of Ramadhaan and gave a fatwa to the army to break their fast in order to help them against their enemy, as the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) did during the battle of the liberation of Makkah. The Muslims won the battle against the Tartars and drove them away from Damascus and all Syria.